Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 23, 161-189.
Red dots) than they did to the originally rewarded S array with its equal numbers of red to blue items.
Cardinal Numbers and Counting In the studies described so far, the birds clearly showed that they could judge relative differences in the numbers of items, but they were not required to choose stimuli according to the absolute number of items they contained.
Number represents one of the abstract properties of items or events in the environment, or of actions that organisms can perform.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Alsop and Honigs (1991) approach was to flash a series of colored lights onto a center key that pigeons had to peck.But a physical response might not be obvious.To respond sequentially until a specific number of items had been obtained or events had been completed.Response distributions to each given symbol revealed that errors were more frequent with an adjacent numerosity than with more distant numerosities (e.g.These two experiments suggested that time is a more salient dimension than number for pigeons, which is slightly different from the conclusion reached by Roberts.The published reports of these experiments also contain a wealth of detailed observations about the animals assistant loco pilot question paper 2013 behavior during the experiments.In Roberts version of the model, the pulses can be routed simultaneously into two different accumulators.This non-linearity gives some clues about the processing of relative number, as will be discussed later.Feral children and clever animals: Reflections on human nature.
Pacemaker-accumulator models, and a stimulus control model were designed to explain how different numbers of sequential events are processed.
If there were more red than blue flashes in a series, then choice of one side key was correct.
Cmos vlsi Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspective (3rd Edition).At the start of training, the birds that had to choose less did not show this pattern of results.The other parameter is decay following stimulus events.Mostly the accuracy of their performance broke down when the number of items or events they had to respond to was between 5 and 6, or 6 and 7 (Koehler, 1943).But as the delay increased these birds were more likely to choose the "small-number" rather than the "large-number" key after 8 flashes.Numerical competence in animals: Definitional issues, current evidence, and a new research agenda.When both arrays in a pair contained multiple dots there were four combinations of high density near" spacing) and low density far" spacing) for each numerosity pair.